Lost HOA Constitution webinar complete videos

This post allows access to 3 webinar videos on Restoring the Constitution to HOA-Land. The quality improves as I go on — it’s the content, the material, that’s important to learn and understand.

For best viewing press the ‘expand’ icon (lower right) for full screen viewing. Place cursor over video to select menu.

Restructuring HOAs: “benefit of the member” pt. 1

Mentoring: “inure to the benefit of the member”

Government of the members

Continuing my discussion of the Declaration’s intent and purpose[1] as expressed by “shall inure to the benefit of the member, ” the question arises as to how does the BOD accomplish this task when it has a contractual obligation to many owners. How can the BOD represent the individual interests of the buyer with those of all existing members? Must we accept the interpretation of “member” in the Declaration to really mean “members”? Really!

This concern is of importance and not a mundane, trivial concern because it involves concepts and principles of representative democracy, as claimed by HOA proponents, the will of the people doctrine, vote of the majority, and obedience in conscience. It is relevant because the HOA is not subject to municipal law or the Constitution, but under a binding, private contractual agreement. HOAs are allowed to exist as outlaw governments, operating and functioning outside the laws of this democracy.

Much too often the courts and legislatures have treated the HOA as if it were a municipal government, ignoring the CC&Rs contract and misapplying municipal doctrine and precedent; without applying those aspects of the laws that protect the member’s constitutional rights. For example: allowing the HOA to tax its members — called assessments — with a right of draconian foreclosure, but providing a laughable “due process” known as “a right to a hearing” where the judges are the accusers and judicial civil procedure is an unknown.

Ask yourself: Is this the benefit being provided in the best interests of the members? I think not! And the legislatures do not have clean hands in this matter, not at all!

Maintaining an orderly HOA

The philosophical theory, simply stated, behind a democracy as a direct democracy is the voice of the people. But what does that really mean? First, it means each person gets to have his voice heard in the governance of his community or society along with all others. And that combined, aggregated voice is measured not so much as by shouting but by a vote of the hands or a ballot. Second, our US representative democracy the people elect representatives to speak their voice. In HOA governments members choose a board of directors to govern the HOA as their elected representatives, or their voice.

In both cases the practical application of the voice of the people has been reduced to a vote of the majority and the majority rule doctrine.[2] These were issues that the political philosophers of the Age of Enlightenment — Rousseau, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Adam Smith — had to contend with as necessary for an orderly society even though it was not a true, direct vote of the people. But what about the minority, those who disagreed with the majority position? Well, they had to obey the general will of the people represented by the majority even though they were on the losing side.[3] However, they may not agree in conscience especially if they firmly believe the law is unjust and not fair.

Former AG Meese wrote,

Through deliberation, debate, and compromise, a public consensus is formed about what constitutes the public good. It is this consensus on fundamental principles that knits individuals into a community of citizens.[4]

Where is the consensus of the HOA members to constitute the public good? To knit individuals into a true community? Surely not by a hand-me-down contract that the buyer must accept as is without any give and take.

Randy Barnett, Director of the Georgetown Center for the Constitution, wrote,

A law may be ‘valid’ because it was produced in accordance with all the procedures required by a particular lawmaking system, [the HOA amendment procedure, for example] but be ‘illegitimate’ because these procedures were inadequate to provide assurances that a law is just.[5]

With respect to the courts and legislatures upholding tacit (implied) consent, Keith Wittington, Prof. Politics at Princeton, wrote,

Tacit consent purports to provide a rationale for obligating those of us who, by chance or choice, have not made their approval of the government explicit. . . . Perhaps most significantly, we are taken to have consented tacitly to government action if we continue to vote for government.[6]

Understand that when your HOA says the majority rules maintaining that it represents the voice of the owners just remember it’s just a means to maintain an orderly society and to grant the board the authority to govern. What about a member’s agreement in conscience?

This topic continues with Restructuring HOAs: “CAI influence on member benefits” pt. 2 with the CAI School to be posted soon.


[1] See “Restructuring HOAs – intents and purposes,” George K. Staropoli, HOA Constitutional Government (Feb 2020).

[2] State laws governing corporations provide the legal basis for BOD authority and powers. Robert’s Rules provides widely accepted procedures based on majority rule.

[3] For a summary of the will of the people see my Commentary, HOA consent to agree vs. “the will of the majority. For a detailed discussion of agreement in conscience and consent to agree see Randy Barnett, Restoring the Lost Constitution, Princeton Univ. Press, (2004); Keith E. Whittingham, “Chapter 5, Popular Sovereignty and Originalism,” Constitutional Interpretation, Univ. Press of Kansas (1999); Edwin Meese III, “What the Constitution Means,” The Heritage Guide to the Constitution (2005).

[4] Id, Meese.

[5] Supra n. 3, Barnett.

[6] Supra n. 3, Whittington.


Restructuring HOAs – intents and purposes

Mentoring: Purposes, intents, and mission of HOAs[1]

The larger HOAs, especially those that are planned master HOAs or resort style or active adult HOAs,[2] may contain explicit mission and vision statements as well as a declaration of values. Most other HOAs, also created as nonprofits, generally do not explicitly offer such statements. Here’s are shortened but typical examples of such statements used by an active adult, resort style HOA in Arizona.

Mission Statement:

To provide residents with a high-value community with resort-style amenities,

To maximize our investments.

Vision Statement: To become the premier active, age-restricted community in Arizona.

Values: We believe in a community culture having high standards and principles of conduct and behavior.

These boards of directors (BODs) believe that they are doing the right thing. Addressing nonprofit organizations, eminent management consultant Peter F. Drucker wrote: “The first job of the leader is to think through and define the mission of the institution.”[3] He makes the point that the worthiness of a mission statement lies in leading to “right action.” It has to be operational, otherwise it’s just good intentions. They set the policies that serve to guide the organization’s activities and conduct toward effective performance.

HOA contractual mission

We can ask: How are the HOAs doing with regard to accomplishing their mission? But first we must discover if the BOD is operating under its contractual CC&Rs obligations rather than adopted intentions. In HOA-Land, regardless of any explicitly adopted statements, all HOA nonprofits do contain a contractual statement of purpose and intent. They can be found in the CC&Rs usually in the opening paragraphs or in the articles relating to the duties, powers, etc. of the association.

In my sampling of CC&Rs of both large and small HOAs I found boilerplate wording that focused on “maintaining property values” or “for the overall development, administration, maintenance and preservation of the Properties.” Almost all, but not everyone, contain a statement directed toward the member: “shall inure [take effect] to the benefit of the member” [or “each owner”], and “be mutually beneficial.” I came across this one-sided statement: “intended to benefit the Association.” The most liberal and progressive statement of purpose mimics the Preamble to the Constitution “to promote the health, safety and general welfare of the residents of the Properties” (the general welfare clause). The inclusion of “health and “safety” are redundant in that “general welfare” includes these concerns.

Unlike other nonprofit organizations, the HOA comes with these contractual obligations and is not free to conjure up any mission that does not conform to the CC&Rs. What is quite clear is the absence of a frame of mind that addresses the requirement to benefit the members. The conduct, actions, intents and policies of the HOA must benefit the members just as our public government must serve the people.

Now it can be argued that that’s just what the CC&Rs and bylaws do is to benefit the members because of its enforcement powers, architectural guidelines, use restrictions, the right to fine, and the draconian right to foreclose. As Drucker maintains, the mission statement must lead to “right action,” which can only be such action that conforms to the HOA’s mission and leads to the effective and productive performance.

Best interests of their members?

Do the members really believe that their best interests lie with an authoritarian, contractual private government that denies fundamental and constitutional protections in the broadest applications of a deprivation of “life, liberty, or property without due process of law” and a denial of “the equal protection of the laws.”? I don’t believe so!

Yes, the above powers maybe necessary to maintain an orderly society, but where are the constitutional protections of the rights of a member that are required for legitimate and valid governmental powers?

Find out more about restructuring the HOA model and “inuring to the benefit of the member” in my sequel soon to follow.


Further reading:



[1] This is the first Commentary under the category of Mentoring. Mentorship is a relationship in which a more experienced or more knowledgeable person helps to guide a less experienced or less knowledgeable person. See About StarMan Group for credentials.

[2] I’ve classified HOAs as to resort style, retirement, and pure residential according to their CC&RS and operations and amenities. For a further discussion of types of HOAs, see Are there vibrant, competent, harmonious HOAs?; the CAI perspective, HOA-Land “one size fits all” injustice. The CAI 2005 survey showed 26.8% were resort and 44.3% were residential.

[3] Peter F. Drucker, Managing the Nonprofit Organization: Principles and Practices, HarperCollins (1990).

HOAs are in need of a major restructuring

Whether you like your HOA, or dislike your HOA, is immaterial. It’s all about the Constitution and the HOA legal scheme. What matters is whether the HOA legal structure is a danger to the country, because it will happen again. And none of us can have confidence, based on the historical record, that it will not happen again because . . . every day it is allowed to continue at will.[1]

It is well past the time for a restructuring of the HOA model of local government formulated some 56 years ago by ULI in 1964 — The Homes Association Handbook. In 1973 CAI was formed to deal with the persistent problems facing the HOA model, and in 1992 CAI was forced to change its educational tax-exempt status to that of a business trade group in an attempt to deal with the continued problems with HOA.[2] In 2005 it had to drop HOAs as a member due to conflicts with the purpose of a business trade group — HOAs are consumers of CAI services.

These HOA problems and issues are endemic to the legal model of unconstitutional, private governments as a result of the intents and motivations behind the introduction of HOAs: to make $$$ by means of a mass merchandising effort.[3] Constitutional considerations were ignored and avoided by focusing on the legalities of real estate law and equitable servitudes to justify the legal authority over the HOA members. The policy makers have failed to understand that the HOA CC&Rs have crossed over the line between purely property restrictions to establishing unregulated and authoritarian private governments.

There is no denying that the HOA subdivision managed by competent boards and professionals appeals to the desires and wants of home buyers and bring many benefits. It comes as no surprise that the vast majority of persons living in an HOA approve and love their HOA, finding only minor problems with the board of directors or HOA managers. The annual “satisfaction” surveys produced by the pro-HOA trade group, CAI, reflect this positive attitude.

However, the HOA legal structure and scheme is authoritarian in nature: strong central power, limited political freedoms, no accountability, and under the rule of man, not law.

But the HOA is truly a totalitarian democracy. A totalitarian democratic state is said to maximize its control over the lives of its citizens by using the dual rationale of general will (i.e., “public good”) and majority rule.[4]

Prof. McKenzie wrote in 1994: “HOAs currently engage in many activities that would be prohibited if they were viewed by the courts as the equivalent of local governments.”[5] The authoritarian nature of HOA-Land is masked by a thorough indoctrination that presents a false picture of the real estate subdivision as democratic, inappropriately named a community, simply because the members are allowed to vote, as meaningless as it is.

The HOA danger to the Constitution has been presented in several Commentaries herein, and in the white paper found in the book, The HOA-Land Nation Within America.[6]

There is no denying that the HOA subdivision managed by competent boards and professionals appeals to the desires and wants of home buyers and bring many benefits. However, as this whitepaper addresses, the means to this end are highly suspect and harmful to our democratic system of government.

StarMan Group, HOA Management Consulting, offers a program to resolve many of the substantive defects with HOAs by means of the complete restructuring of the model: a program of organizational development. It also requires the removal of the adverse influences by the CAI School of HOA Governance as I collectively refer to CAI’s policies, best practices, guides, communications, seminars and certifications, and in its Manifesto.[7]

consulting SIG image1


[1] Rep. Schiff’s (Rep. Adam Schiff is the leading Democratic impeachment prosecutor), opening argument Friday, Jan. 24, 2020, appealing to the Senators to uphold the Constitution. “Whether you like the president, or dislike the president, is immaterial. It’s all about the Constitution and his misconduct. What matters is whether he is a danger to the country, because he will do it again. And none of us can have confidence, based on his record, that he will not do it again because he is telling us every day that he will.”

[2] See in general: Evan McKenzie, Privatopia: Homeowners Associations and the Rise of Residential Private Governments, Yale Univ. Press, 1994; Donald R. Stabile, Community Associations: The Emergence and Acceptance of a Quiet Innovation in Housing (funded by CAI and ULI).

[3] See in general, “Analysis of The Homes Association Handbook,George K. Staropoli (2006).

[4] George K. Staropoli, The HOA-Land Nation Within America, p. 22 (StarMan Press 2019).

5 Supra n. 2, Privatopia.

[6] Supra, n.4, p. 4.

[7] Community Next: 2020 and Beyond (May 5, 2016).  A manifesto is a public declaration of intentions, opinions, objectives, or motives, as one issued by a government, sovereign, or organization. A white paper is an authoritative report or guide that informs readers concisely about a complex issue and presents the issuing body’s philosophy on the matter. It is meant to help readers understand an issue, solve a problem, or make a decision.


Sun City HOA: a real independent principality

Sun City, AZ. a renowned retirement community, is an unincorporated town under the governance of the Sun City HOA (SCHOA).  It does not qualify as a planned community or as an HOA under the state’s statutes. SCHOA is a private nonprofit corporation — no mayor & no town council, governs it.  A sort of a throw back to the times when the sovereign, the king, issued charters or grants of authority to private organizations to conduct business or to govern new lands.

In modern times, does the nonprofit corporation charter by the state, the new “sovereign” of a republic, truly grant a nonprofit corporation the right to function as the legitimate government of a sub-division of the state?  This could not possibly the intent of the corporation statutes since the state abounds with municipal corporation statutes — cities, towns, special districts, etc. — and with methods and procedures for incorporating new towns and cities.  The appeal of direct democracy, local government control or “home rule” is understood, and agreeing to be governed by a business form of government under corporate laws could be viewed as a strong desire for independence from unwanted influences and intrusions.

Sun City is indeed such an independent government, not answerable under state municipality laws or the Constitution, as it is not subject to the planned communities statutes. Sun City is just subject to the broader corporation statutes that were in no way written to establish a democratic form of political government.  This sort of independent principality status has more in common with a tribal society where the inhabitants of the village are loyal first and foremost to their tribe and village, and to the leaders of the tribe, than to their state or country.

This tribalism reveals itself as the Sun City HOA does not require mandatory assessments, yet each deed requires that the owner make mandatory payments to another nonprofit, the Recreational Centers of Sun City (RCSC).  And in order for RCSC to qualify for common area real estate tax treatment, all owners “must be obligated to pay mandatory assessments to maintain and manage the common areas.”    Consequently, to accomplish this reduced tax basis without having to be subject to state planned community laws, a separate agreement is required to be signed by the owner agreeing to pay, not the HOA, but RSCS dues.  This is extraordinary, since the deed itself could simply require mandatory payments to a bona fide HOA that would own and manage the common areas, as is the case with a genuine HOA.

The strong desire to independent of state laws, yet to use them as above, required an amendment to the common area valuation statutes, ARS 42-13402 et seq., adding the “must be” clause above in 2000 (Ariz. Sess. L. Ch 196; HB1251).  What could have possibly been the intent of this statute other than to bestow a gift upon Sun City, an unincorporated community, tax benefits amounting to an estimated $113,000 per year, or $1,130,000 over the past 10 years?

Today, the residents of this independent “principality” are coming once again before the legislature, with the SCHOA attorney (a member of the national pro-HOA lobbying group, CAI), to deny the state its legitimate right to regulate and control the public streets within Sun City (HB 2153).  Suddenly, parking has become a safety issue in spite of the fact that, from the very beginning, the county planning board approved these alleged unsafe streets, and legal mechanisms are available to SCHOA to obtain variances on a case-by-case basis.

Don’t buy it!  Sun City is demanding complete freedom from the state with no interference into the “internal affairs” of their principality.  State cooperation, provided it is consistent with the aims and goals of Sun City, however, is acceptable and welcomed.