Court requires constitutional due process in HOA foreclosures

The enlightenment and awareness that the US Constitution and its due process requirement extends to private government HOAs is gaining momentum. ”The writing is on the wall.”

In the recent Colorado appellate decision in Hummel (C&C Investments v. Hummel, 022COA42, April 14, 2022)  concerning proper notice of homeowner foreclosure by the HOA, the court surprisingly acted sua sponte —in the name of justice. The courts have repeatedly failed to invoke, in the pursuit of justice as it claims to be its fundamental purpose, its right to act sua ponte — on its own — raising discussions of issues not raised by either party.  

In Hummel the question arose as to whether or not the homeowner was given notice of impending foreclosure action by the HOA.  The HOA send a processor server who said he posted the notice in the newspaper, which is allowed under certain circumstances. She discovered her plight only when an eviction notice was pinned to her door. The question be determined was, What is proper, legal service?

While court rules require that the HOA serve notice, the court held that it “must also meet the mandates of due process before foreclosing on an individual’s property” and that,

[I]t is not unreasonable to require a homeowners association to make a good faith, rather than a highly technical, effort to effectuate actual notice to a fellow neighbor before foreclosing on their property.”

In support of its opinion, the Court referenced the Colorado appellate court’s court view:

“Although an association is not the government, it serves “quasi-governmental functions” when enforcing covenants and must abide by the due process requirements of the United States and Colorado Constitutions.

“[T]he United States Supreme Court has long held that when foreclosing a lien against an individual’s home, due process requires “notice [that is] reasonably calculated, under all the circumstances, to apprise interested parties of the pendency of the action and afford them an opportunity to present their objections.”

The appellate court found that the trial court failed to adhere to these principles before ordering a default judgment.

Now comes the downside to HOA paradise

It is only natural for a family suffering from the economic affect of the virus to save the mortgage payments first and to not pay their assessments. Members do not understand that the BOD is obligated not to allow this to happen and an increase in foreclosures looms a head. Their friendly, neighborly, smiling BOD directors will turn to foreclosures in an ineffective attempt to stem the tide.

We’re all familiar with the saying “there are no free lunches.” As the current economic crisis becomes more severe hitting the pocketbooks of many families, don’t neglect paying your HOA dues if you can. The survival of the HOA has always been a motivating factor of HOA boards supported by court rulings, and if assessment income drops as a result of decreasing member finances, guess what?

Whatcan the board  do? Stop maintenance, stop events, clubs, shows, etc. to save cash and help their members survive in an act of good neighbors. Hopefully you may have an enlightened, progressive BOD that ignores the advice of their HOA attorneys, who probably will scare them into you’re gonna get sued.

There are no free lunches living in an HOA.



Homeowner Advocate Research Research

FYI —-

I have collected, and read over the years, several hundred federal and state opinions on HOAs, state actors, mini-governments, foreclosure, due process, equal protection of the laws, constitutionality, etc.  Must be supreme court or appellate court records. It would be helpful to all if you would forward me a link to any important cases that you’ve come across so I could add them to my database.  Email as attachment to, or fax to private fax at 480-907-2196.

Any questions can be sent by text or, preferably, email. No calls please.



HOA foreclosures and unclean hands

I’ve come across a few cases involving the markedly low HOA auction price as compared to the market value of the home. Previously, I compared this situation to the US Supreme Court’s finding that punitive awards more than 10 times the damages violates the 8th Amendment and constitutes cruel and unusual punishment. (See State Farm v. Campbell, 538 U.S. 408 (2003)). But other decisions pertaining directly to foreclosures, which did not address the 8th Amendment, are also to be considered.

In the 1984 Tennessee Supreme Court non-HOA case, Holt v. Citizens Central Bank (688 S.W.2d 414), the court reversed long standing doctrine regarding foreclosure sales.  The view that “a price of ten percent of the fair market value would probably shock the conscience of any court” and “that inadequacy of consideration so great as to shock the conscience of the court, standing alone, was sufficient to warrant voiding the sale” was thrown out.  In place, the court held, along with decisions in Texas and North Carolina, that

If a foreclosure sale is legally held, conducted and consummated, there must be some evidence of irregularity, misconduct, fraud, or unfairness on the part of the trustee or the mortgagee that caused or contributed to an inadequate price, for a court of equity to set aside the sale.

The question for homeowners in foreclosure is whether or not the HOA comes with unclean hands[i]?  Are there elements of “irregularity, misconduct, fraud, or unfairness” on the part of the HOA?

In the Tennessee 2011 appellate case, Brooks v. Rivertown (No. W2011-00326-COA-R3-CV memorandum decision[ii]), the court upheld the denial of an HOA foreclosure because the HOA could not specify an exact amount owed. It upheld the Holt decision since it found irregularities in the HOA’s bookkeeping; and the HOA also failed to follow its required 30-day notice in non-judicial foreclosure, amounting to unclean hands.

For those in foreclosure, you need to ask for an accounting by the HOA, which must show your legitimate challenges to the HOA’s recordkeeping, like I paid but the HOA ignored me, etc.


[i] “The principle that a party cannot seek equitable relief or assert an equitable defense if that party has violated an equitable principle, such as good faith.” Black’s Law Dictionary, 7th Ed.

[ii] A memorandum decision means that no new law was made, and that just old law was applied.  Consequentially, there is no reason for binding precedent status.

HOA Common Sense, No. 8: Draconian punishment and intimidation

Draconian punishment and intimidation, No. 8

The Tennessee appellate court in Brooks found “that the foreclosure sale price shocked the conscience of the court.[i] A home valued at over $321,000 was foreclosed for just $12,800 of which $6,734, more than half, went directly into the attorney’s hands.[ii]  That’s more than 25 times the “damages” to the HOA. The Charleston Regional Business Review reported that the average foreclosure debt was about $4,500 and the average home value foreclosed was about $160,000, or 36 times the debt.

An award of more than the 10 times for punitive damages was held by the US Supreme Court in State Farm v. Campbell[iii]  to be a cruel and unusual punishment in violation of the 8th Amendment.  This right to foreclose in unjust and draconian, taking away a person’s home and leaving him with nothing!   It is unconscionable and discriminatory as explained below. Furthermore, HOAs assessments are considered a consensual lien and are exempt from homestead protections. (See paper No.4 above, speaking about your legitimate consent to be bound.)

With respect to HOA foreclosures, we once again discover that HOA assessments are being treated the same as public government taxes and property assessments — must be paid and your property can be foreclosed for non-payment. Both taxes and HOA assessments are not related to hard cash payments for which the lender is entitled to foreclosure to protect his loan, nor are they based on any specific transactions, like payments for garbage collection, for electricity, or for police protection, etc. 

Why should the HOA be given this right when other entities do not have foreclosure rights, and when there are other available collection methods — garnishment, sale of other property, etc. — to collect on bad debts?  Other entities, both public and private, must face the possibility of failure or bankruptcy – there are no guarantees in life.  A standard accounting procedure, and used by CAI Central in its financial statements, is what is called “Bad debts reserve” or “Reserves for bad debts,” which is an annual estimate of uncollected assessments.

Using common sense, we can understand the value to the HOA to “evict” the non-payer and to replace him with a new owner who will make timely assessment payments.  That’s logical. There is very little opportunity to raise additional funds for expenses except by means of increased assessments on other members, the “it’s not fair” argument. While the end of the foreclosure action has a rational value, the means is highly suspect. 

In addition to the arguments of special rights as enjoyed by public entities and an unconscionable punishment, HOA foreclosures are discriminatory.  The following quote is from an Arizona CAI attorney:

Assuming foreclosure eligibility requirements are met, whether foreclosure is a viable option depends largely on what other liens, interests, and encumbrances burden the subject property. . . .If the property is not subject to a mortgage or there is a minimal first mortgage, foreclosure is a viable option as there is likely equity in the property. . . . Even if the property is subject to a recorded first mortgage and there is no equity in the property, foreclosure still may be a viable option. Sometimes the threat of foreclosure alone is enough to get a delinquent owner’s attention. . . . the owner will often pay the association in order to keep his/her home.[iv]

This is an admission of the discriminatory nature of the foreclosure process — works only if the homeowner was an upstanding citizen who had paid his mortgage and assessments for many years, and had created all that equity that the HOA now seeks. It is also an admission of the punitive and intimidation motives of the HOA — “the owner will often pay the association in order to keep his/her home” — without facing the reality that “you can’t get blood from a turnip”! The HOA attorneys promote the view that the non-payers are scofflaws and deadbeats who are seeking to stick it to the good, assessment paying members. “It isn’t fair!” goes the cry.

What the foreclosure process does do, and is not mentioned by the CAI attorney, is that the attorney can claim fees many times in excess of the amounts owed the HOA. So, who really benefits? Certainly not the homeowner who loses everything with this draconian punishment. And there are other methods available to collect bad debts, and if not viable, well, then that’s the cost of doing business.

Is this good public policy to treat homeowners facing hardship not of their doing — take away their home and leave them with nothing?  Legislation must be put into place to protect against intimidation and wrongful foreclosure, and to ensure a strict enforcement of the foreclosure process, especially requiring documentation and an exact specification of the undisputed debt owed.  If the state legislatures truly believe that HOAs are the next best thing to Mom’s apple pie, they should be ready to ante up and financially support HOAs facing financial difficulties.  Perhaps in this way homeowners will get the accountability to the state and the requisite oversight of HOAs.

As to the broader solution, there is a just and compassionate legal solution to this state of affairs that can be put into place quickly and effectively. Allow the homestead exemption for HOA assessments!  If a state has no homestead protection, simply enact one ASAP!  This is a fair, compassionate, and sensible solution.  I anticipate strong opposition to this proposal, but I remind the opponents to be prepared to address the unclean hands of the HOA as summarized in this Common Sense series of papers.

PS.  I apologize for the intrusion by WordPress to have added underlines to certain words.