Colorado HOA act creates state actors?

I give credit to the Colorado Legislature for stating its intent, its position, on supporting HOAs, which is rarely found in other state statutes.  Section 38-33.3-102 reads (in part):

Legislative declaration

(1) The general assembly hereby finds, determines, and declares, as follows:

(a) That it is in the best interests of the state and its citizens to establish a clear, comprehensive, and uniform framework for the creation and operation of common interest communities;

(b) That the continuation of the economic prosperity of Colorado is dependent upon the strengthening of homeowner associations in common interest communities financially through the setting of budget guidelines, the creation of statutory assessment liens, the granting of six months’ lien priority, the facilitation of borrowing, and more certain powers in the association to sue on behalf of the owners and through enhancing the financial stability of associations by increasing the association’s powers to collect delinquent assessments, late charges, fines, and enforcement costs;

 

Subsections (c) – (e) contain basically the same theme — don’t let the HOA fail by providing the developer with certain financial protections and operating rules on good management.  In a bold, in your face statement the statute contains an annotation, which reads:

There is no support for the proposition that enactment of a legislative scheme governing the operation of homeowners’ association thereby transforms such homeowners’ association into cities or other governmental entities. Woodmoor Improvement Ass’n v. Brenner, 919 P.2d 928 (Colo. App. 1996).

This 1996 authority still holds true today.  State governments regulate people and entities by establishing laws, such as these HOA “acts” under its police powers “to promote the general welfare.”   That has come to mean to protect the health, safety and general welfare of the people.  The issue at hand, which has not been tested in the courts, is: when does and under what circumstances do these HOA acts create HOAs as state actors?[1]

It would seem that just from this Legislative Declaration of purpose there are reasonable grounds to suspect state cooperation (no penalties against HOA violations of state laws or the governing documents), coercion (foreclosure, pay or lose your home, etc.), and support for HOAs, a close nexus with daily operations (closely involved on HOA management) s symbiotic relationship (you help me, I help you), significant encouragement, either overtly or covertly.[2]  But no mention of any protections of due process and the equal protection of the laws as an objective of its involvement in HOA-Land.

Note that subsection 1(a) above speaks not of individual statutes, but of “a clear, comprehensive, and uniform framework” to support HOAs. Therefore, we must look at the overall picture of the HOA act and determine its broad impact on HOAs, and whether the legal scheme or structure establishes state actors.  And in 1(b) above the general assembly makes a case for establishing state actors when it states, “by increasing the association’s powers to collect delinquent assessments, late charges, fines, and enforcement costs.”  The details can be found within the act itself.

Please understand that in the statutes, both in Colorado and in other states, the statutes give the appearance of protecting the homeowner and his rights, but this is an illusion. What does the homeowner do if the board violates the law?  His ultimate recourse is to sue the HOA in civil court, but the statutes and governing documents (and court case history) are protective of the HOA as this Colorado section clearly demonstrates.

Where are the constitutional protections that would remove the HOA member as a second-class citizen?  To bring him back into the American Zone? They are nowhere to be found!  Why?  Because the state believes that the homebuyer has freely and with full knowledge agreed to be bound by the explicit and implied waivers in the governing documents.  But, have they?[3]

It would seem that the Colorado General Assembly has crossed the line and by its HOA statutes created HOAs as state actors.

References

[1] See, in general, HOA Common Sense, No. 9: HOA governments in fact.

[2] See Do state HOA Statutes Establish HOAs as State Actors?

[3] See HOA Common Sense, No. 4: Consent to be governed

Advertisements

The URI to TrackBack this entry is: https://pvtgov.wordpress.com/2014/08/02/colorado-hoa-act-creates-state-actors/trackback/

RSS feed for comments on this post.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s