Much of the abuse by boards, the management firms, and attorneys are tortious acts that are illegal and also constitute a fraud upon the members. You will not hear this at pro-HOA seminars sponsored by local governments and/or taught by CAI attorneys.
“D & O” means “directors and officers.”
“Most, if not all, D&O policies contain a provision that excludes intentional criminal and fraudulent acts committed by board members,” says Collins. “However, [our policy] will continue to defend the directors and/or officers until such time that a criminal action can be proven. The policy will then cease to provide any further protection once it is determined that a board member knowingly committed a criminal or fraudulent act.”
D&O coverage also doesn’t indemnify a board or board member against decisions made “in bad faith,” or with illegal intent. If a board is found to have acted in an illegal manner—deliberately discriminating against a prospective buyer, for example—and are hit with punitive damages, members are on their own when it comes to paying them.
The reason for pursuing these actions acts of bad faith is to force the homeowner into court, where the attorney gets his fees and the HOA gets a free ride, most of the time. Directors and officers are legally bound to act in good faith toward their members.