HOA Case History: state actors or mini/quasi government


  1. Cohen v. Kite Hill,142 Cal App 3d 642 (1983) (A homeowners association board is in effect “a quasi-government entity paralleling in almost every case the powers, duties, and responsibilities of a municipal government.”)
  2. Gerber v. Long Boat Harbour, 757 F Supp. 1339 (M.D. Fla. 1991) (court enforcement of private agreements in condo declarations is a state action; flag; free speech).
  3. Hudgens v. NLRB 424 US 507 (1976) (functions of a municipality, citing Marsh; shopping center)
  4. Marsh V. Alabama, 326 US 501 (1946) (company town and public functions)
  5. Shelly v. Kraemer 334 US 1 (prohibitive state actions by use of judicial enforcement as state was fully aware of the illegal use of the courts; judicial enforcement harms constitutional rights)
  6. Williamson v. Lee Optical, 348 US 483, (1954) (rational basis for scrutiny)
  7. Damon v. Ocean Hills Journalism Club,  85 Cal. App. 4th 468; (2000) (quasi-government; board meetings public forums similar to government body;defamation)
  8. Laguna Publishing Co. v. Golden Rain Found. of Laguna Hills, 131 Cal. App. 3d 182 (1982) (HOA has attributes that “in many ways approximate a municipality . . . close to a characterization as a company town.”)
  9. Surfside 84 v. Mullen Ct. of Special Appeals of Maryland, No. 495 (September 1984) (state action; procedural due process; lack of notice; CAI Reporter).
  10. Brock v. Watergate 502 So. 2d 1380 (Fla. 4 Dist. App. (1987)( public functiuons test; close nexus criteria; HOA lacks character of a company town)
  11. Committee for a Better Twin Rivers v. Twin Rivers, 929 A.2d 1060 (NJ 2007) (HOA not state actor per NJ Scmidt version of Marsh; Not US but NJ Const. case).
  12. Indian Lake v. Director of Revenue, 813 SW 2d 305 (not civic organization)
  13. Midlake v. Cappuccio, 673 A 2d 340, Pa. Super. (1996) (condo is a pvt organization, not muni govt; not a company town)
  14. Riley v. Stoves, 526 P.2d 747, Ariz. App. Div. 2 (1974) (state action; classification; enforce age restrictions;”court to enforce constitutional commands”; restriction was a permissible government interest).
  15.  S.O.C. v. Mirage Casino-Hotel, 43 P 3rd 243 (Nev. 2001) (state action; public functions; delegating functions to private persons; commerical advertising on private property).
  16. Terre Du Lac Ass’n, Inc. v. Terre Du Lac, Inc., 737 S.W.2d 206 (Mo. App. 1987). (quasi govt) (how a homeowner’s association operates as a “quasi-governmental entity,” not authority for the concept that an association’s “quasi-governmental” actions are state actions;).
  17. Westphal v. Lake Lotawana, 95 SW 3d 144 (Mo. App. 2003) (no support for “close nexus” state action).



  1. The above cases in bold are color coded. Red is adverse to constitutional protections; Blue is favorable; black in neutral.
  2. There are 3 case against and 4 cases in favor. Two were not dispositive. The “against” cases were all based on a “public functions” test.
  3. The non-bold cases concern related issues not involving an HOA/condo, such as state action, public functions, or mini/quasi governments.
  4. The above findings are not exhaustive and reflect the analysis of some 153 HOA/condo , state action cases on a federal and state level.


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I have been a long-term homeowner rights advocate and author of "The HOA-Land Nation Within America" (2019) and"Establishing the New America of independent HOA principalities" (2008). See HOA Constitutional Government at http://pvtgov.org. My efforts with HOAs took me to a broader concern that was deeply affecting the constituionality of HOAs. Those broad societal and plotical concerns caused me to start this new blog for my commentaries on the State of the New America.

9 thoughts on “HOA Case History: state actors or mini/quasi government”

  1. Fantastic..
    Thank you for your stuff on the blog post HOA Case History: state actors
    or mini/quasi government | HOA Constitutional Government.

    They are very seriously interesting.. I really enjoyed browsing your page.

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